He was subsequently appointed Earl Marshal of England and Lord Lieutenant of Ireland at age three, and was inducted into the Order of the Bath soon after. The day after the ceremony he was created Duke of York and a month or so later made Warden of the Scottish Marches. In Mayhe was appointed to the Order of the Garter.
When Henry Tudor, earl of Richmond, seized the throne on August 22,leaving the Yorkist Richard III dead upon the field of battle, few Englishmen would have predicted that years of Tudor rule had begun. His mother was the great-granddaughter of John of Gaunt, duke of Lancasterwhose children by Catherine Swynford were born before he married her.
As his mother was only 14 when he was born and soon married again, Henry was brought up by his uncle Jasper Tudor, earl of Pembroke. When the Lancastrian cause crashed to disaster at the Battle of Tewkesbury MayJasper took the boy out of the country and sought refuge in the duchy of Brittany.
The house of York then appeared so firmly established that Henry seemed likely to remain in exile for the rest of his life. His first chance came in when his aid was sought to rally Lancastrians in support of the rebellion of Henry Stafford, duke of Buckinghambut that revolt was defeated before Henry could land in England.
Claiming the throne by just title of inheritance and by the judgment of God in battle, he was crowned on October 30 and secured parliamentary recognition of his title early in November.
Having established his claim to be king in his own right, he married Elizabeth of York on January 18, Many influential Yorkists had been dispossessed and disappointed by the change of regime, and there had been so many reversals of fortune within living memory that the decision of Bosworth did not appear necessarily final.
Hence, the king was plagued with conspiracies until nearly the end of his reign. Henry, recognizing that Simnel had been a mere dupe, employed him in the royal kitchens.
Then in appeared a still more serious menace: It was not untilwhen he imprisoned Suffolk in the Tower of Londonthat Henry could at last feel safe. Foreign policy In the early years of his reign, in a vain attempt to prevent the incorporation of the duchy of Brittany into FranceHenry found himself drawn along with Spain and the Holy Roman emperor into a war against France.
But he realized that war was a hazardous activity for one whose crown was both impoverished and insecure, and in he made peace with France on terms that brought him recognition of his dynasty and a handsome pension. Thereafter, French preoccupation with adventures in Italy made peaceful relations possible, but the support that Maximilian and James IV gave to Warbeck led to sharp quarrels with the Netherlands and Scotland.
The economic importance of England for the Netherlands enabled Henry to induce Maximilian and the Netherlands to abandon the pretender in and to conclude a treaty of peace and freer trade the Intercursus Magnus.
Spain had recently sprung into the first rank of European powers, so a marriage alliance with Spain enhanced the prestige of the Tudor dynasty, and the fact that in the Spanish monarchs allowed the marriage to take place is a tribute to the growing strength of the Tudor regime in the eyes of the European powers.
Indeed, in these last years of his reign, Henry had gained such confidence in his position that he indulged in some wild schemes of matrimonial diplomacy.
But the caution of a lifetime kept him from involvement in war, and his foreign policy as a whole must not be judged by such late aberrations. He had used his diplomacy not only to safeguard the dynasty but to enrich his country, using every opportunity to promote English trade by making commercial treaties.
He made his country so prosperous and powerful that he was able to betroth his daughter Mary to the archduke Charles afterward Emperor Charles Vthe greatest match of the age.
Government and administration In home affairs, Henry achieved striking results largely by traditional methods.
Like Edward IV, Henry saw that the crown must be able to display both splendour and power when occasion required. This necessitated wealth, which would also free the king from embarrassing dependence on Parliament and creditors.
Solvency could be sought by economy in expenditure, such as avoidance of war and promotion of efficiency in administration, and by increasing the revenue. To increase his income from customs dues, Henry tried to encourage exports, protect home industries, help English shipping by the time-honoured method of a navigation act to ensure that English goods were carried in English ships, and find new markets by assisting John Cabot and his sons in their voyages of discovery.
More fruitful was the vigorous assertion of royal fiscal rights, such as legal fees, fines and amercements, and feudal dues. This was largely achieved by continuing Yorkist methods in ordering most of the royal revenue to be paid into the chamber of the household, administered by able and energetic servants and supervised by the king himself, instead of into the Exchequer, hidebound by tradition.
In restoring order after the civil wars, Henry used more traditional methods than was once thought. Like the Yorkist kings, he made use of a large council, presided over by himself, in which lawyers, clerics, and lesser gentry were active members.The story of England's King Henry VIII and his six wives.
Books, DVDs, and links about Henry VIII and his queens. Kids learn about the biography of Henry VIII, Renaissance king of England who split from the Catholic Church and was married six times.
Henry VII: Henry VII, king of England (–), who succeeded in ending the Wars of the Roses between the houses of Lancaster and York and founded the Tudor dynasty. His son was Henry VIII. Learn more about Henry VII’s life, reign, and accomplishments in this article. Biography of King Henry VIII of England, the Tudor monarch whose six wives had to fear execution, divorce, and death; father of Queen Elizabeth I and 'Bloody Mary'. The second son of Henry VII (–), Henry VIII was born on June 28, , at England's Greenwich Palace. As a child he studied Latin, Spanish, French, and Italian. He also studied mathematics, music, and theology (study of religion). Henry became an accomplished musician and played the lute.
Henry VII: Henry VII, king of England (–), who succeeded in ending the Wars of the Roses between the houses of Lancaster and York and founded the Tudor dynasty. His son was Henry VIII. Learn more about Henry VII’s life, reign, and accomplishments in this article.
A BRIEF BIOGRAPHY OF HENRY VIII. By Tim Lambert. Henry VIII was born at Greenwich Palace on 28 June the second son of Henry Tudor (Henry VII).
Henry VIII is one of the most famous kings in English history. He was the second Tudor monarch and was well-known for having six wives. His break with the papacy in Rome established the Church of. Henry VIII (June 28, – January 28, ) was King of England and Lord of Ireland (later King of Ireland) from April 22, , until his death.
Henry VIII is one of the most famous kings in English history. He was the second Tudor monarch and was well-known for having six wives. His break with the papacy in Rome established the Church of. The second son of Henry VII (–), Henry VIII was born on June 28, , at England's Greenwich Palace. As a child he studied Latin, Spanish, French, and Italian. He also studied mathematics, music, and theology (study of religion). Henry became an accomplished musician and played the lute. King Henry VIII – Facts, Information, Biography & Portraits. In the biography of Henry at this site, I hope to capture both the king’s personality and assess his importance to history. With Arthur’s death, his teenage wife was trapped in England while Henry VII squabbled with her father over the remaining payments on her dowry.
He was the second monarch of the Tudor dynasty, succeeding his father, Henry VII of England. He is famous for having been married six times and for wielding the most untrammeled power of any British monarch.
|Henry VIII Biography - life, children, death, wife, son, old, information, born, marriage, year||He declared himself king "by right of conquest" retroactively from 21 Augustthe day before Bosworth Field. He took great care not to address the baronage, or summon Parliament, until after his coronation, which took place in Westminster Abbey on 30 October|
|User Contributions:||He was the second Tudor monarch and was well-known for having six wives. His break with the papacy in Rome established the Church of England and began the Reformation.|
|Other Websites||While the young sovereign enjoyed his inheritance, Thomas Wolsey collected titles—archbishop of York inlord chancellor and cardinal… Accession to the throne Henry was the second son of Henry VIIfirst of the Tudor line, and Elizabeth, daughter of Edward IVfirst king of the short-lived line of York.|
|Loss of popularity||Looking less to Europe where the Pope was and more to the industriousness and spirit of seafaring adventure that characterized the island nation, Henry's reign fostered the later British imperial expansion, which spread the English language, ideas of fair-play and eventually of human rights, of democracy and of religious liberty that still live on in the nations of the Commonwealth and in the United States. His father had become King through conquest, but solidified his hold by marrying Elizabeth, the sister of Edward V of England.|
|Henry VIII of England - New World Encyclopedia||Henry wanted a male heir to consolidate the power of the Tudor dynasty.|