David Hume was born in in Scotland and attended the University of Edinburg, leaving after three years to pursue philosophy.
Of sensation external 2. Of reflection internal Hume begins by dividing all mental perceptions between ideas thoughts and impressions sensations and feelingsand then makes two central claims about the relation between them.
That is, for any idea we select, we can trace the component parts of that idea to some external sensation or internal feeling. This claim places Hume squarely in the empiricist tradition, and he regularly uses this principle as a test for determining the content of an idea under consideration.
For example, my impression of a tree is simply more vivid than my idea of that tree. One of his early critics, Lord Monboddo — pointed out an important implication of the liveliness thesis, which Hume himself presumably hides. Most modern philosophers held that ideas reside in our spiritual minds, whereas impressions originate in our physical bodies.
So, when Hume blurs the distinction between ideas and impressions, he is ultimately denying the spiritual nature of ideas and instead grounding them in our physical nature.
In short, all of our mental operations—including our most rational ideas—are physical in nature. Hume goes on to explain that there are several mental faculties that are responsible for producing our various ideas.
He initially divides ideas between those produced by the memory, and those produced by the imagination. The memory is a faculty that conjures up ideas based on experiences as they happened. For example, the memory I have of my drive to the store is a comparatively accurate copy of my previous sense impressions of that experience.
The imagination, by contrast, is a faculty that breaks apart and combines ideas, thus forming new ones. Hume uses the familiar example of a golden mountain: As our imagination takes our most basic ideas and leads us to form new ones, it is directed by three principles of association, namely, resemblance, contiguity, and cause and effect.
By virtue of resemblance, an illustration or sketch, of a person leads me to an idea of that actual person. The idea of one apartment in a building leads me to think of the apartment contiguous to—or next to—the first.
The thought of a scar on my hand leads me to think of a broken piece of glass that caused the scar. As indicated in the above chart, our more complex ideas of the imagination are further divided between two categories.
Some imaginative ideas represent flights of the fancy, such as the idea of a golden mountain; however, other imaginative ideas represent solid reasoning, such as predicting the trajectory of a thrown ball.
The fanciful ideas are derived from the faculty of the fancy, and are the source of fantasies, superstitions, and bad philosophy. By contrast, sound ideas are derived from the faculty of the understanding—or reason—and are of two types: He dramatically makes this point at the conclusion of his Enquiry: When we run over libraries, persuaded of these principles, what havoc must we make?
If we take in our hand any volume; of divinity or school metaphysics, for instance; let us ask, Does it contain any abstract reasoning concerning quantity or number?
Does it contain any experimental reasoning concerning matter of fact and existence? Commit it then to the flames: For it can contain nothing but sophistry and illusion Enquiry, Principles of reasoning concerning relations of ideas involving demonstration: In his analysis of these issues in the Treatise, he repeatedly does three things.
First, he skeptically argues that we are unable to gain complete knowledge of some important philosophical notion under consideration. Second, he shows how the understanding gives us a very limited idea of that notion.
Third, he explains how some erroneous views of that notion are grounded in the fancy, and he accordingly recommends that we reject those erroneous ideas. Space On the topic of space, Hume argues that our proper notions of space are confined to our visual and tactile experiences of the three-dimensional world, and we err if we think of space more abstractly and independently of those visual and tactile experiences.The Clarendon Edition of the Works of David Hume (ongoing), ed.
Tom L. Beauchamp, Mark Box, David Fate Norton, Mary Norton, M.A. Stewart. This is a carefully-researched critical edition of Hume’s philosophical works, and supersedes all previous editions.
Kant famously attempted to “answer” what he took to be Hume's skeptical view of causality, most explicitly in the Prolegomena to Any Future Metaphysics (); and, because causality, for Kant, is a central example of a category or pure concept of the understanding, his relationship to Hume on this topic is central to his philosophy as a whole..
Moreover, because Hume's famous discussion. Immanuel Kant (/ k æ n t /; German: Kant was an exponent of the idea that perpetual peace could be secured through universal democracy and international cooperation. There is much discussion among Kant scholars about the correct interpretation of this train of thought.
Kant vs Hume. share.
Contents. 1 Kant and Hume: A philosophical controversy; Morality can not be produced by reason because the ideas and beliefs can not motivate us to act.
the reason is the slave of the passions in Hume, contrary to Descartes’ view on passions of the soul. However, the corporation regarding the passions it arouses.
Chapter Two discusses Kant's direct and indirect engagement with Hume on causation. Guyer isolates several distinct but related issues about causation that arise out of Hume's discussions in the Treatise and Enquiry. These include the source of the idea of causal connection, the justification of particular causal inferences, the basis for the general .
Kruse, Hume’s Philosophy is to show Hume’s inﬂuence on some of the logical positivists. Robert Sternfeld outlines Hume’s inﬂuence on contemporary “operationalists” and “experimentalists” in “The Unity of Hume’s Enquiry Concerning Human Understanding,” Review of Metaphysics, 3 (December, ), pp.