A personal recount of the history of anthropology

It has thus been called the " oldest religion " in the world. The first period is the pre-Vedic period, which includes the Indus Valley Civilisation and local pre-historic religions, ending at about BCE.

A personal recount of the history of anthropology

These are estimated to be between 20, and 30, years old. The same culture is found at sites A personal recount of the history of anthropology Eluanbi on the southern tip of Taiwan, persisting until 5, years ago.

There are also references in Chinese texts and Taiwanese aboriginal oral traditions to pygmies on the island at some time in the past. Their sites are characterized by corded-ware pottery, polished stone adzes and slate points.

The inhabitants cultivated rice and millet, but were also heavily reliant on marine shells and fish. Most scholars believe this culture is not derived from the Changbinian, but was brought across the Strait by the ancestors of today's Taiwanese aboriginesspeaking early Austronesian languages.

Malayo-Polynesian languages are now spoken across a huge area from Madagascar to HawaiiEaster Island and New Zealandbut form only one branch of the Austronesian family, the rest of whose branches are found only on Taiwan.

Iron appeared at the beginning of the current era in such cultures as the Niaosung Culture. The Book of Sui relates that Emperor Yang of the Sui dynasty sent three expeditions to a place called " Liuqiu " early in the 7th century. Ryukyu referred to the island chain to the northeast of Taiwan, but some scholars believe it may have referred to Taiwan in the Sui period.

In the survivors of a Portuguese shipwreck spent ten weeks battling malaria and aborigines before returning to Macau on a raft. Dutch Formosa and Spanish Formosa Taiwan in the 17th century, showing Dutch magenta and Spanish green possessions, and the Kingdom of Middag orange A transient population of Han Chinese made out of traders and pirates started migrating to southwest Taiwan in the early 17th century before Dutch rule.

Taiwan's southwest was already home to a Chinese population numbering close to 1, before when the Dutch first came. Defeated by the Portuguese at the Battle of Macau inthey attempted to occupy Penghubut were driven off by the Ming authorities. They then built Fort Zeelandia on the islet of Tayowan off the southwest coast of Taiwan.

The site is now part of the main island, in modern AnpingTainan. On the adjacent mainland, they built a smaller brick fort, Fort Provintia. They also built Fort Santo Domingo in the northwest modern Tamsui inbut had abandoned it by The small colony was plagued by disease and a hostile local population, and received little support from Manila.

The Dutch set out to turn Taiwan into a Dutch colony.

A personal recount of the history of anthropology

The first punitive expedition was against the villages of Baccloan and Mattauw, north of Saccam near Tayowan. The Mattauw campaign had been easier than expected and the tribe submitted after having their village razed by fire.

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The campaign also served as a threat to other villages from Tirossen modern Chiayi to Lonkjiaow Hengchun. The punitive attack on Lamay Island in response to the killing of the shipwrecked crews of the Beverwijck and the Golden Lion ended ten years later with the entire aboriginal population of removed from the island including Lamayans killed in a cave, having been trapped there by the Dutch and suffocated in the fumes and smoke pumped into the cave by the Dutch and their allied aborigines from Saccam, Soulang and Pangsoya.

The events on Lamay changed the course of Dutch rule to work closer with allied aborigines, though there remained plans to depopulate the outlying islands.

After a brief but destructive campaign inPieter Boon was able to subdue the tribes in this area, including the Kingdom of Middag. Most of the immigrants were young single males who were discouraged from staying on the island often referred to by Han as "The Gate of Hell" for its reputation in taking the lives of sailors and explorers.

Other parts of the deer were sold to Han traders for meat and medical use. The Dutch paid aborigines for the deer brought to them and tried to manage the deer stocks to keep up with demand.

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The Dutch also employed Han to farm sugarcane and rice for export. Some of these rice and sugarcane products reached as far as the markets of Persia.

Unfortunately, the deer the aborigines had relied on for their livelihoods began to disappear, forcing the aborigines to adopt new means of survival. Ina naval fleet led by the Ming loyalist Koxinga arrived in Taiwan to oust the Dutch from Zeelandia and establish a pro-Ming base in Taiwan.

He was raised there until seven and moved to Quanzhouin the Fujian province of China. In a family made wealthy from shipping and piracy, Koxinga inherited his father's trade networks, which stretched from Nagasaki to Macao.

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Following the Manchu advance on Fujian, Koxinga retreated from his stronghold in Amoy Xiamen and besieged Taiwan in the hope of establishing a strategic base to marshal his troops to retake his base at Amoy. Infollowing a nine-month siege, Koxinga captured the Dutch fortress Zeelandia and Taiwan became his base see Kingdom of Tungning.

Zheng Jing had an affair with his wet nurse and conceived a child with her. In response to raids by Zheng Jing and in an effort to starve out the forces in Taiwan, the Qing decreed to relocate all of the southern coastal towns and ports that had been the targets of raids by the Zheng fleet and thus provided supplies for the resistance.

This to a large extent backfired and from —4 six major waves of immigration occurred from these areas to Taiwan due to the severe hardships incurred from this relocation policy.

In a move to take advantage of this Qing misstep, Zheng Jing promoted immigration to Taiwan by promising free eastern land cultivation and ownership for peasants in exchange for compulsory military service by all males in case the island was in danger of a Qing invasion.

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Qing dynasty rule[ edit ] Main gate of Lukang Longshan Templebuilt in Initial immigration restriction[ edit ] Infollowing a naval engagement with Admiral Shi Langone of Koxinga's father's trusted friends, Koxinga's grandson Zheng Keshuangsurrendered to the Qing dynasty.

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A personal recount of the history of anthropology

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In addition, the totem pole collections in Vancouver's Stanley Park, Victoria's Thunderbird Park, and the Museum of Anthropology at the University of British Columbia were removed from their original locations around British Columbia.

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