Detectors[ edit ] A carbon monoxide monitor clipped to the uniform of a paramedic Prevention remains a vital public health issue, requiring public education on the safe operation of appliances, heaters, fireplaces, and internal-combustion engines, as well as increased emphasis on the installation of carbon monoxide detectors.
History[ edit ] Aristotle — BC first recorded that burning coals produced toxic fumes. An ancient method of execution was to shut the criminal in a bathing room with smoldering coals. What was not known was the mechanism of death. Greek physician Galen — AD speculated that there was a change in the composition of the air that caused harm when inhaled.
The gas was identified as a compound containing carbon and oxygen by the Scottish chemist William Cruikshank in External with a few exceptions charcoal or wood gas generators were fitted, and the mixture of atmospheric nitrogen, hydrogen, carbon monoxide, and small amounts of other gases produced by gasification was piped to a gas mixer.
The gas mixture produced by this process is known as wood gas. In the presence of oxygen, including atmospheric concentrations, carbon monoxide burns with a blue flame, producing carbon dioxide.
Some processes in modern technology, such as iron smeltingstill produce carbon monoxide as a byproduct. For this reason, the process off-gases have to be purified.
On the other hand, considerable research efforts are made in order to optimize the process conditions,  develop catalyst with improved selectivity  and to understand the reaction pathways leading to the target product and side products.
In biology, carbon monoxide is naturally produced by the action of heme oxygenase 1 and 2 on the heme from hemoglobin breakdown.
This process produces a certain amount of carboxyhemoglobin in normal persons, even if they do not breathe any carbon monoxide.
Following the first report that carbon monoxide is a normal neurotransmitter in  as well as one of three gases that naturally modulate inflammatory responses in the body the other two being nitric oxide and hydrogen sulfidecarbon monoxide has received a great deal of clinical attention as a biological regulator.
In many tissues, all three gases are known to act as anti-inflammatoriesvasodilatorsand promoters of neovascular growth. Molecular properties[ edit ] Carbon monoxide has a molar mass of The bond length between the carbon atom and the oxygen atom is Carbon—oxygen double bonds are significantly longer, Bonding and dipole moment[ edit ] The carbon monoxide has a very high bond-dissociation energythe strongest of any neutral molecule, Carbon and oxygen together have a total of 10 electrons in the valence shell.
Following the octet rule for both carbon and oxygen, the two atoms form a triple bondwith six shared electrons in three bonding molecular orbitals, rather than the usual double bond found in organic carbonyl compounds.
Since four of the shared electrons come from the oxygen atom and only two from carbon, one bonding orbital is occupied by two electrons from oxygen, forming a dative or dipolar bond. By contrast, the isoelectronic dinitrogen molecule has no dipole moment.
If carbon monoxide acts as a ligandthe polarity of the dipole may reverse with a net negative charge on the oxygen end, depending on the structure of the coordination complex.
Bond polarity and oxidation state[ edit ] Theoretical and experimental studies show that, despite the greater electronegativity of oxygen, the dipole moment points from the more-negative carbon end to the more-positive oxygen end.
It is calculated by counting all the bonding electrons as belonging to the more electronegative oxygen. Only the two non-bonding electrons on carbon are assigned to carbon. In this count, carbon then has only two valence electrons in the molecule compared to four in the free atom.
Biological and physiological properties[ edit ] Main article: Carbon monoxide poisoning Carbon monoxide poisoning is the most common type of fatal air poisoning in many countries. It combines with hemoglobin to produce carboxyhemoglobinwhich usurps the space in hemoglobin that normally carries oxygen, but is ineffective for delivering oxygen to bodily tissues.
Affected families often believe they are victims of food poisoning. Infants may be irritable and feed poorly. Neurological signs include confusion, disorientation, visual disturbance, syncope faintingand seizures.
The "false" or unphysiologic red-coloring effect in anoxic CO-poisoned tissue is related to the meat-coloring commercial use of carbon monoxide, discussed below.
Carbon monoxide also binds to other molecules such as myoglobin and mitochondrial cytochrome oxidase. Exposures to carbon monoxide may cause significant damage to the heart and central nervous systemespecially to the globus pallidus often with long-term chronic pathological conditions.
Carbon monoxide may have severe adverse effects on the fetus of a pregnant woman. Gaseous signaling molecules Carbon monoxide is produced naturally by the human body as a signaling molecule.
Thus, carbon monoxide may have a physiological role in the body, such as a neurotransmitter or a blood vessel relaxant.contamination of air, water, or soil by substances that are harmful to living organisms. Pollution can occur naturally, for example through volcanic eruptions, or as the result of human activities, such as the spilling of oil or disposal of industrial waste.
A year-old boy was killed and 12 people were hospitalized when a visit to a hotel’s indoor swimming pool led to carbon monoxide poisoning, authorities said.
Blood gas tests (arterial blood gases, ABGs) measure oxygen (O2), carbon dioxide (CO2) and pH to evaluate a person's lung function and the pH balance (acid and base) of their blood. - Benzodiazepine and other hypnotic drug kinetics - Cytochrome P 3A4 (CYP3A4) inhibitors and inducers - Causes of delirium and confusion - Drugs that cause or prolong delirium RELATED TOPICS.
Acute opioid intoxication in adults; Carbon monoxide poisoning; Clinical features and diagnosis of acute bacterial meningitis in adults.
Carbon Monoxide Poisoning Home. Carbon monoxide (CO), an odorless, colorless gas, which can cause sudden illness and death, is produced any time a .
Follow these six steps to keep you and your family safe when your carbon monoxide alarm goes off. We also reveal the best carbon monoxide detectors so you can avoid the worst, and tell you about carbon monoxide poisoning symptoms.