How are street gangs different from other criminal groups, such as organized crime groups, motorcycle gangs, ideology groups, and prison gangs? Some notable examples include the organized, collective drug trade, strong ties, and covert behavior among prison gangs, compared with less structured, more individualistic drug trade, highly fluctuating ties, and overt behavior among street gangs. Is the gang problem changing?
The ARK defines a program model as promising if it does not satisfy the definition of an evidence-based program model, but meets one or more of the following criteria: Police dispatch protocols ensure that officers who have received CIT training are designated as the officer in charge on the scene if multiple officers respond to a crisis encounter.
Cases may be resolved informally without an arrest or the arrest charge may be dropped or withdrawn if the individual completes treatment. The co-responder model of CIT pairs police officers with clinical outreach workers who may be civilian employees of the police department or employees of partnering social service agencies.
The police officers and clinicians work collaboratively to co-manage crisis encounters and oversee referrals to treatment. Less research has investigated patient-level outcomes, such as reductions in criminal recidivism or improvements in mental health symptoms. Retrospective studies of police encounters with mentally ill persons, and studies in which officers were given hypothetical vignettes of such encounters, have generally found no differences in the use of force or likelihood of making an arrest between CIT-trained and non-trained officers.
However, post hoc analyses suggest that CIT-trained officers may be less likely to use force when a mentally ill person is acting in an overtly defiant or psychotically agitated manner. Additionally, CIT-trained officers were more likely than non-trained officers to carry a non-lethal electronic control device e.
Police officer perceptions of the impact of crisis interventions team CIT programs. A comprehensive review of extant research on crisis intervention team CIT programs.
Journal of the American Academy of Psychiatry and the Law, 36 147— Use of force preferences and perceived effectiveness of actions among crisis intervention team CIT police officers and non-CIT officers in an escalating psychiatric crisis involving a subject with schizophrenia.
Schizophrenia Bulletin, 37 4 Surveys of police chiefs and sheriffs and of police officers about CIT programs. Psychiatric Services, 66 7 Crisis intervention teams and people with mental illness: Exploring factors that influence use of force.
The criminal justice outcomes of jail diversion programs for persons with mental illness: A review of the evidence. The crisis intervention team model of police response to mental health crises: A primer for mental health practitioners.
Best Practices in Mental Health, 8 2 Outcomes of police contacts with persons with mental illness: The impact of CIT. Administration and Policy in Mental Health, 37 4 A multisite study found significantly better outcomes when CIT officers partnered with a crisis drop-off center that had a no-refusal policy for police referrals Steadman et al.
These outcomes were significantly better than for two other CIT programs that paired officers with clinicians in the field, but provided no assurance that treatment would be available after the immediate crisis was resolved.
These findings suggest that police may be more likely to forgo an arrest if they are confident that an individual will receive adequate treatment to prevent further entanglements with the law.
Comparing outcomes of major models of police responses to mental health emergencies. Psychiatric Services, 51 5 The programs were created for seriously disordered individuals who would otherwise have a low risk for criminal reoffending if they receive indicated services i.
If a referral for psychiatric treatment is unlikely to stabilize a case and avert future encounters with law enforcement, a more assertive outreach approach with continuing supervision by criminal justice professionals may be indicated.
Studies have found that police officers were more likely to apply CIT strategies when an individual was acting oddly, was psychotically agitated, or had an unusually defiant demeanor Compton et al. Police may be more willing to use verbal de-escalation techniques in lieu of force when the need level of an individual is observably impaired.Airport/Airline Security Airport/Airline Security: "Intelligence and Airports," by Robert T.
Raffel, 76 FBI Law Enforcement Bulletin No. 4, pgs (April ). "Airport security practitioners have several avenues to receive and use information and intelligence.". Donald Henry Gaskins, Jr. (March 13, - September 6, ) dubbed the "Meanest Man in America", was an American serial killer, possibly connected to over murders.
Born in Florence County, South Carolina, Pee Wee got an early start in crime, spending most of his youth in and out of reform school and later prison. An Examination of Juvenile Delinquency and Female Gang Members PAGES 4.
As part of the NIJ Study Group on the Transitions Between Juvenile Delinquency to Adult Crime, scholars examined differences between juveniles who persist in offending and those who do not, and also looked at early adult-onset offending. The Adolescent Criminal examines the most important issues, components, and trends concerning adolescent misconduct from the vantage point of the end of the s, and concerns itself with what to look for in the future. Despite indications that juvenile delinquency is decreasing, a closer look at the picture gives much cause for concern. Jul 16, · The National Child Traumatic Stress Network Core Data Set (NCTSN-CDS) is used to address these aims, among which adolescents report recent involvement in the juvenile justice system as indexed by being detained or under community supervision by the juvenile court.
WORDS 2, View Full Essay. More essays like this: juvenile delinquency, female gang members. Not sure what I'd do without @Kibin - Alfredo Alvarez, student @ Miami University. Exactly what I needed. Juvenile gang activity among adolescents has also increased in the Salt Lake City area.
In , the Salt Lake Area Gang Project identified gangs and 1, active gang members in the Salt Lake City vicinity. Approximately 38% of gang members are juveniles below the age of eighteen (Salt Lake Area Gang Project, ).
Matter of Varig Brazilian Airlines Flight No. , 21 I&N Dec. (BIA ) (1) The reasonable diligence standard of section (c) of the Immigration and Nationality Act, 8 U.S.C. Â§ (c) (Supp.
III ), is applied both to the determination of whether the passenger was an alien and to the adequacy of the carrier’s examination of the passenger’s documents. Journal of Evidence-Based Social Work Volume 11, - Issue 4: State of the Evidence in Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention.
Female gang members in particular may join gangs for protection from neighborhood or family violence.