A Brief History Psychologists and other theorists have proposed a number of different theories centered on how children develop. Some of these theories are known as grand theories and attempt to explain almost every aspect of how people change and grow over the course of childhood. In other instances, these theories focus on a more narrow aspect of development.
Linguistic relativity Benjamin Whorfwhile working as a student of Edward Sapirposited that a person's thinking depends on the structure and content of their social group's language. In other words, it is the belief that language determines our thoughts and perceptions.
For example, it used to be thought that Greeks, who wrote left to right, thought differently than Egyptians since the Egyptians wrote right to left.
Quine's theory relates to other nativist philosophical traditions, such as the European rationalist philosophers. A relevant figure in this nativist tradition for cognitive developmental theory is Immanuel Kant.
Neuroscience and Cognitive Development Edit During development, especially the first few years of life, children show interesting patterns of neural development and a high degree of neuroplasticity.
The relation of brain development and cognitive development is extremely complex and, since the s, has been a growing area of research. In other words, culture can influence brain structures which then influence our interpretation of the culture. These examples reveal cultural variations in neural responses: Figure-Line Task Hedden et al.
In general, East Asian cultures are more interdependent whereas Western cultures are more independent. This article or section may be confusing or unclear for some readers, and should be edited to rectify this.
Please improve the article, or discuss the issue on the talk page. The study showed that participants used regions of the brain associated with attentional control when they had to perform culturally incongruent tasks.
In other words, different neural paths used for the same task were different for Americans and East Asians Hedden et al. They found universal activation of the region bilateral ventromedial prefrontal cortex in Theory of Mind tasks.
However, American children showed greater activity in the left inferior frontal gyrus during the tasks whereas Japanese children had greater activity in right inferior frontal gyrus during the Japanese Theory of Mind tasks.
Concepts are viewed as the distillate of sensory experience and the vital link between external inputs and overt behaviors. Maturing individuals attain concepts according to their unique informal and formal learning experiences and their maturational patterns. The word concept not only designates mental constructs of individuals but also the meanings of words and other symbols accepted by social groups who speak the same language.
Concrete concepts have perceptible attributes; they can be physically seen or proven.
Examples are animal, or color. Concrete concepts are usually easier for a child to understand. Abstract concepts are those whose attributes cannot be directly perceived, such as imagination. Abstract ideas are something that are more difficult for children to understand. For example, explaining death to a child can be difficult because it is hard to change it into a concrete concept.
Words can be spoken or written. When they are written the boundaries of a word are clear because words are separated from each other by spaces.
That this is not a trivial task is evident if a comparison is made between the tasks of counting the number of words written in a language we do not understand and counting the number of words spoken in the same language.
The former task is extremely easy and the latter extremely difficult. This consideration of words is important to the language acquisition process. Children must segment the speech they hear into the appropriate-sized units in order to learn a language.
If we were to say that a child learning language has heard words when what has been heard was a continuous stream of speech that was not understood, then, clearly, we would not have provided a good description of the stimulus input that the child has received.
Accordingly, we need a term for a continuous period of speech that does not carry with it presumptions about the decomposition of the speech. Children understand what is spoken through two methods.
First, input to children is simplified by comparison with speech among adults. Adults talk to children more slowly, in shorter utterances, with repetition of key words, and in higher pitch than when they talk to other adults.
This makes it easier for children to identify the units i. Second, in conjunction with this environmental help, children selectively attend to stressed elements of the adult utterance and, to a large extent, ignore the rest.
Since the referential words of an utterance are typically the ones that are stressed and repeated in adult speech to children, this means that children will extract the major content words initially from a sentence.Introduction.
The most important development in early childhood social cognition is the development of theory of mind. 1,2 Its development during the first five years of life is described in this article, as well as factors that influence its development, and the consequences of its development for children’s lives at home and school.
Subject. Social cognition is at the heart of children’s. An Introduction to Child Development, Third Edition provides undergraduate students in psychology and other disciplines with a comprehensive survey of the main areas of child development, from infancy through to adolescence, in a readily accessible format.
It equips students with an appreciation of the critical issues, while providing balanced coverage of topics that represent both classic and cutting .
The Second Edition includes the following features: learning points - section & chapter summaries, - end-of-chapter glossaries - suggestions for further reading - sample multiple choice questions - sidebars featuring in depth discussions of key research findings or points of .
Nov 09, · Perceptual development is an aspect of cognitive development that allows a young human being to start interpreting and understanding sensory input. In the first year of life, it proceeds extremely rapidly. The cognitive theories of child development focus on how a child’s thought processes change over the course of childhood.
One of the best-known cognitive theories is Jean Piaget’s theory of cognitive development. Child Psychology Introduction Psychology involves studying the mental functioning and general behaviors of both humans and animals.
Social behavior and mental functioning of an individual are explained by exploring the neurological and physiological processes.