Odious debt is unfair debt resulting from illegitimate loans. A useful summary from Jubilee USA: Odious debt is an established legal principle. Legally, odious debt is debt that resulted from loans to an illegitimate or dictatorial government that used the money to oppress the people or for personal purposes.
It is also known as Latin America's Integration. The idea that a part of the Americas has a linguistic affinity with the Romance cultures as a whole can be traced back to the s, in the writing of the French Saint-Simonian Michel Chevalierwho postulated that this part of the Americas was inhabited by people of a " Latin race ", and that it could, therefore, ally itself with " Latin Europe ", ultimately overlapping the Latin Churchin a struggle with " Teutonic Europe ", " Anglo-Saxon America " and " Slavic Europe ".
The Allure and Power of an Idea His argument is that French imperialists used the concept of "Latin" America as a way to counter British imperialism, as well as to challenge the German threat to France.
This led to Napoleon's failed attempt to take military control of Mexico in the s.
Idea for a Federal Congress of Republics. The first event happened less than a decade before the publication of Bilbao's and Torres Caicedo's works: The second event happened the same year both works were written, in opposition to the decision by U. Both authors also ask for the union of all Latin American countries as the only way to defend their territories against further foreign U.
Both rejected also European imperialism, claiming that the return of European countries to non-democratic forms of government was another danger for Latin American countries, and used the same word to describe the state of European politics at the time: He asked Latin American intellectuals to search for their "intellectual emancipation" by abandoning all French ideas, claiming that France was: However, in France the term Latin America was used with the opposite intention.
It was supported by the French Empire of Napoleon III during the French invasion of Mexico as a way to include France among countries with influence in the Americas and to exclude Anglophone countries.
It played a role in his campaign to imply cultural kinship of the region with France, transform France into a cultural and political leader of the area, and install Maximilian of Habsburg as emperor of the Second Mexican Empire.
Latin America is, therefore, defined as all those parts of the Americas that were once part of the Spanish, Portuguese and French Empires. This definition emphasizes a similar socioeconomic history of the region, which was characterized by formal or informal colonialismrather than cultural aspects see, for example, dependency theory.
Spanish, Portuguese, Frenchand the creole languages based upon these. The distinction between Latin America and Anglo-America is a convention based on the predominant languages in the Americas by which Romance-language and English-speaking cultures are distinguished. Neither area is culturally or linguistically homogeneous; in substantial portions of Latin America e.
The term is not without controversy. Historian Mauricio Tenorio-Trillo explores at length the "allure and power" of the idea of Latin America. He remarks at the outset, "The idea of 'Latin America' ought to have vanished with the obsolescence of racial theory But it is not easy to declare something dead when it can hardly be said to have existed," going on to say, "The term is here to stay, and it is important.
Hispanic America with the inclusion of nations that according to him do not share the same pattern of conquest and colonization. If defined as all of the Americas south of the United States, the basic geographical subregions are North AmericaCentral Americathe Caribbean and South America ;  the latter contains further politico-geographical subdivisions such as the Southern Conethe Guianas and the Andean states.Social Problems is the official publication of the The Society for the Study of Social Problems.
A social problem is a condition that at least some people in a community view as being undesirable. Everyone would agree about some social problems, such as murders and DWI traffic deaths.
Other social problems may be viewed as such by certain groups of people. Latin America is a group of countries and dependencies in the Western Hemisphere where Romance languages such as Spanish, French and Portuguese are predominantly spoken; it is broader than the terms Ibero-America or Hispanic torosgazete.com term "Latin America" was first used in an conference with the title "Initiative of the America.
Idea for a Federal Congress of Republics" (Iniciativa de. History of Latin America: History of Latin America, the history of the region from the pre-Columbian period to the 20th century.
Congressional Research Service Reports on Foreign Policy and Regional Affairs Policy Issues. The United States and the "World Court", CRS Legal Sidebar, October 17, Global Trends in Democracy: Background, U.S.
Policy, and Issues for Congress, October 17, ; The Global Compact on Migration (GCM) and U.S. Policy, CRS In Focus, October 16, The s (pronounced "nineteen-sixties") was a decade of the Gregorian calendar that began on 1 January , and ended on 31 December The term "s" also refers to an era more often called the Sixties, denoting the complex of inter-related cultural and political trends around the torosgazete.com "cultural decade" is more loosely defined .
Anti-Corruption: The Global Fight is a new handbook from IIP Publications that outlines the kinds of corruption, their effects, and the ways that people and governments combat corruption through legislative and civil society actions.