Environment yrs Animation, Video 4 Biodiversity: Definition There are thousands upon thousands of plant and animal species on earth. They are all continuously evolving and adapting to the environment around them. Biodiversity is the variety of animals and plants found on this planet including the geographic locations they are found in.
Etymology[ edit ] The term biological diversity was used first by wildlife scientist and conservationist Raymond F.
Dasmann in the year lay book A Different Kind of Country  advocating conservation. The term was widely adopted only after more than a decade, when in the s it came into common usage in science and environmental policy.
Thomas Lovejoyin the foreword to the book Conservation Biology,  introduced the term to the scientific community. Jenkins,  Lovejoy and other leading conservation scientists at the time in America advocated the use of the term "biological diversity".
It first appeared in a publication in when sociobiologist E. Wilson used it as the title of the proceedings  of that forum.
A similar term in the United States is "natural heritage. Broader than biodiversity, it includes geology and landforms. Biologists most often define biodiversity as the "totality of genes, species and ecosystems of a region".
An explicit definition consistent with this interpretation was first given in a paper by Bruce A. They study processes such as mutation and gene transfer that drive evolution.
However, tetrapod terrestrial vertebrates taxonomic and ecological diversity shows a very close correlation. Among other factors, the diversity of all living things biota depends on temperature, precipitation, altitude, soilsgeography and the presence of other species.
The study of the spatial distribution of organismsspecies and ecosystemsis the science of biogeography. Diversity consistently measures higher in the tropics and in other localized regions such as the Cape Floristic Region and lower in polar regions generally.
Latitudinal gradients in species diversity Generally, there is an increase in biodiversity from the poles to the tropics. Thus localities at lower latitudes have more species than localities at higher latitudes.
This is often referred to as the latitudinal gradient in species diversity. Several ecological mechanisms may contribute to the gradient, but the ultimate factor behind many of them is the greater mean temperature at the equator compared to that of the poles.
This hypothesis considers temperaturemoistureand net primary production NPP as the main variables of an ecosystem niche and as the axis of the ecological hypervolume.
In this way, it is possible to build fractal hypervolumes, whose fractal dimension rises up to three moving towards the equator. Hotspots[ edit ] A biodiversity hotspot is a region with a high level of endemic species that have experienced great habitat loss.
Colombia is characterized by high biodiversity, with the highest rate of species by area unit worldwide and it has the largest number of endemics species that are not found naturally anywhere else of any country.
Selection bias amongst researchers may contribute to biased empirical research for modern estimates of biodiversity. Gilbert White succinctly observed of his Selborne, Hampshire "all nature is so full, that that district produces the most variety which is the most examined.
Evolution Apparent marine fossil diversity during the Phanerozoic  Biodiversity is the result of 3. The origin of life has not been definitely established by science, however some evidence suggests that life may already have been well-established only a few hundred million years after the formation of the Earth.
Until approximately million years ago, all life consisted of microorganisms — archaeabacteriaand single-celled protozoans and protists.
The history of biodiversity during the Phanerozoic the last million yearsstarts with rapid growth during the Cambrian explosion —a period during which nearly every phylum of multicellular organisms first appeared.
Over the next million years or so, invertebrate diversity showed little overall trend and vertebrate diversity shows an overall exponential trend. Vertebrates took 30 million years to recover from this event.
Some scientists believe that corrected for sampling artifacts, modern biodiversity may not be much different from biodiversity million years ago.Trees Provide Habitat for Wildlife. It is only natural that wherever trees are planted, wildlife and other plants are sure to follow. Habitat loss is probably the greatest threat to the variety of life on this planet today.
It is identified as a main threat to 85% of all species described in the IUCN's Red List (those species officially classified as "Threatened" and "Endangered"). Increasing food production is a major agent for the conversion of natural habitat into agricultural land. The Cook Islands Biodiversity Database contains detailed information, images, sound and video of over species from the Cook Islands.
Director’s Note: The science and research done on the true impacts of animal agriculture is always growing. The statistics used in the film were based on the best information we had available while producing the film. Hand out: Biodiversity Biological Diversity or Biodiversity - is the variety (diversity) of all life forms on earth, encompassing all plants, animals, microorganisms and the intricate ecosystems they form.
- the totality of ecosystems, species, and genes within the area. Mass Extinction Underway, Majority of Biologists Say Washington Post Tuesday, April 21, [Note: scroll down this page for HUNDREDS of links to updates about the current mass extinction.