Reports are a common form of workplace communication, from a simple work assessment report to the high flying technical write-up.
Guidelines for Writing a Case Study Primary vs. Secondary Research Researchers attempt to answer questions about things they are interested in by studying available resources and attempting to discover what these sources are saying. Often researchers rely on the published work of other researchers.
An individual might want to find out whether lower speed limits really do save lives. To answer this question, the researcher studies statistics covering accident rates in the United States before when the speed limit dropped to 55 on all major highways and interstates.
This kind of information represents secondary research. The researcher refers to sources compiled and arranged by someone else. When you conduct library research, you are probably doing secondary research.
But suppose that the same researcher wants to know whether a street light would save lives at the intersection of Kephart and Old 31, between the Taco Bell and the McDonalds restaurants.
This time the researcher can't look at statistics that someone else has compiled, so she sets up a chair in front of McDonalds and counts the number of kids trying to cross the street between the two restaurants and the number of near misses and the number of actual accidents.
This time the researcher is conducting primary research.
The information she wants to know doesn't exist anywhere because no one else has thought to do this study yet, so she has to start from the beginning. Researchers who read original documents, do original observations, or conduct original clinical research are doing primary research.
Rationale for Case Studies One type of primary research is the case study. The researcher identifies someone who knows something important to the researcher's study and interviews this person to see what can be learned. Much of the world's knowledge exists not in books but in the minds of people who know about the researcher's area of interest.
The case study allows the researcher to gather first-hand information about a topic by talking directly to someone who has had experience in this area. While the case study by itself provides useful information only about one person's experience, many case studies together are useful in showing what may be happening across a whole discipline.
Linda Flower and John Hayes, for instance, have interviewed hundreds of writers about their writing practices. Each individual case study provides one experience of a writer writing. Together, all of the case studies helped Flower and Hayes identify many of the differences between skilled and unskilled writers.
Assignment Your assignment is to conduct an in-depth interview with someone who has had experience in the health care field, either as a patient or as a care giver. You will write up your interview in a case study, then you will publish your case study on the web where others will be able to use your research in future research of their own.
Directions for writing a case study Follow these steps in writing your case study: Identify someone you know who has had experience either as a patient or as a care giver in a health care institution or clinic or hospital of some kind.
Arrange to interview this person to learn about his or her experiences.
You'll be asking questions about this person's impressions regarding the industry's ability to provide compassionate, sympathetic health care.
If you can't conduct your interview in person, a telephone interview is acceptable. Read through any of the articles I have provided you on bedside manners.
Decide, based on your reading, what questions you would like to ask your subject. If you do not have the packet of articles, let me know and I can make you another copy for the cost of the photocopying. Conduct your interview with this person about his or her experiences as a patient or care giver.
Ask the questions you prepared in advance. Tape your interview if your subject gives you permission. If not, use a pseudonym. Organize your case study according to the outline provided below. Use signal phrases to introduce borrowed information in your review.
Cite journal articles and interviews in APA style as indicated below. Additional documentation guidelines are available in your hand book, starting on page Submit your review according to the directions in the syllabus regarding font size, margins, use of a cover page, length, etc.
In addition to a hard copy, submit an electronic copy of your review to me in Word or WordPerfect either on a floppy disk or by attaching it to an e-mail to me at closserb andrews.
Case Study Outline Case studies, like many other research projects in the health care field, include the following sections. Typically, the section headings actually appear in the paper. The introduction and Review of literature sections are often combined.The best writing for popular journalism is some of the best writing in journalism, and is hard to do.
It is readily understandable, instantly readable and, if it is done well, makes you want to. Zoe Amar - head of marketing and business development, Lasa Less is more: Be selective. If you include everything, the annual report just becomes a recipe for information overload.
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