Essays on global challenges and pakistan

To view this licence, visit nationalarchives.

Essays on global challenges and pakistan

In fact the Sun reached its solar max in February of this year Philips 1. Their results will assist astronomers and Hemisphere indicate that the increase in temperature in the 20th century is likely to have been the largest of any century, during the past 1, years. Because fewer data are available, less is known about annual averages prior to 1, years before the present.

On the average, between andnighttime daily minimum air temperatures over land increased by about 0. This is twice the rate of increase in daytime daily maximum air temperatures 0. This has lengthened the freeze-free season in many mid- and high latitude regions.

The increase in sea-surface temperature over this period is about half that of the mean landsurface air temperature.

Global Missiology English, Vol 2, No 5 (2008)

Arctic sea ice has decreased sincewhen satellite measurements began. The record shows a great deal of variability; for example, most of the warming occurred during the 20th century, during two periods, to and to The Earth may have warmed by an average of more than 1. Researchers found that the annual freeze of 26 bodies of water in North America, Asia and Europe shifted later by about 8.

The study found very strong evidence of a general warming from to in areas where there is ice cover. The change in the ice-on and ice-off days found in the study corresponds to an air temperature warming of 2 pages, words The Essay on Global Warming Atmosphere Pollution Year In addition to these, we as a human race Over the past two hundred years we seen significant changes in the effects on our environment, primarily due to For that reason, the amount and type of energy the earth received from the Sun could alter weather and climate on the earth.

Our Sun is not a constant star and variations in the energy that the Earth receives from the Sun, both in the form of total electromagnetic radiation and other types of energy, such as outflows of charged particles, are well documented. The variations in solar energy outflow are generally cyclic, with periodic times ranging from the day solar rotation period, through the year and year solar activity periods.

Solar luminosity is closely linked to sunspot activity, which waxes and wanes over a cycle that lasts 10 to 11 years, Research shows that total solar irradiance, or the total radiant power received by the Earth from the sun, was about 0.

The energy received from the sun The solar constant S varies due to a number of reasons; these include changes in the average distance between the Earth and the Sun, the tilt of the earth and precession.

Climate change refers to any change in global temperatures and precipitation over time due to natural variability The eccentricity is just one of three orbital parameters that influence seasonal and latitudinal changes in short-wave radiation reaching the Earth.

The axis changes direction with a periodicity of about 22, years All the above-mentioned components of the orbit vary because of the gravitational attraction between the earth and the other planets. The orbital changes are known as Milankovich orbital changes3.

He did put forward the theory that the periodic changes of climate between glacial and interglacial are related to the orbital changes of the earth.

However they are only important for climate changes on very long timescales. Hence, when modelling for short time-scales, solar constant energy received from the sun can be handled as a true constant.

The average concentration of CO2 was about ppm parts per million in pre-industrial times; in it was about ppm and is increasing steadily at a rate of 0. Since CO2 is chemically inert, the photochemical or chemical processes in the atmosphere do not destroy it; it is either lost by transfer into the ocean or biosphere, or it builds up in the atmosphere.

The concentration of methane, another greenhouse gas, has more than doubled in the same period. To predict climate change, one must make a model of the climate. One test of the validity of predictions is the ability of the climatic models to reproduce the climate, as we see it today.

Elements of the models, such as the physics and chemistry of the processes that we know or think we know, are essential to represent in the models.

Therefore, the models have to embody the characteristics of the land and the oceans that serve as boundaries of the atmosphere represented in the models.

Models also have to take into account the radiative characteristics of the gases that make up the atmosphere, including the key radiative gas, water vapour that is so variable throughout the atmosphere.

One test of the model occurred in June ; the Mount Pinatubo volcano erupted and sent 25 to 30 million tons of sulphur dioxide into the stratosphere.

There, the sulphur dioxide reacted with water vapour to produce a longlasting haze of sulphuric acid droplets. The GISS group inserted the new information into the model, estimated how much sunlight the Pinatubo aerosol cloud would block, and predicted that the global temperature would drop about 0.

The predicted change actually occurred. Although these successful climate predictions are encouraging, most scientists agree that much remains to be done to improve climate models before we will be able to predict future climate in a credible manner.

InSea Surface Temperatures recorded in some of these tropical Pacific waters were more than 5oC 9o F higher than their average value.

Essays on global challenges and pakistan

A corresponding modulation in the general circulation of the global atmosphere — called the Southern Oscillation — is also closely allied with these ocean changes. Both involve the tropical oceans and the atmosphere, and the exchange of energy between the ocean surface and the air above it.

The ocean and the atmosphere are linked together, interactively, and each affects the other.Free Notes, MCQs, Online Test, Guess Papers and Past Papers for Class 9th, 10th, 11th, 12th.

Challenges and importance of globalization in Pakistan As mentioned above, globalization, and more in particular economic integration, presents Both opportunities and costs. Global recession and its impact on Pakistan economy Presented by HASSAM TARIQ Abstract There has been speculation that American would lead global recession and it could impact the global economy.

IMF also predicted that in global growth would fall from percent to percent. Successful applicants carefully review our MBA application requirements below, and also take the time to connect with our community and learn how to use our resources to thrive. The Global Polio Eradication Initiative is a public-private partnership led by national governments with five core partners - the World Health Organization (WHO), Rotary International, the US Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC), the United Nations Children’s Fund (UNICEF) and the Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

UNICEF is committed to doing all it can to achieve the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs), in partnership with governments, civil society, business, academia and the United Nations family – and especially children and young people.

GPEI – Global Polio Eradication Initiative