As a result, he is invited as a guest to spend the summer at Brandham Hall, the country home of his school friend, Marcus Maudsley. There the socially clumsy Leo, with his regional accent, is a middle class boy among the wealthy upper class. Though he does not fit in, his hosts do their best to make him feel welcome, treating him with kindness and indulgence, especially their daughter Marian. A footpath through marshy ground on the way to Bradenham, the Norfolk location of the novel When Marcus falls ill, Leo is left largely to his own devices and becomes a secret "postman" for Marian and nearby tenant farmer Ted Burgess, with whom she is having a clandestine relationship.
For instance, when the Harvard Business Review published an article on the topic two years ago, it attracted a higher percentage of readers than any other article published in that periodical in the last 40 years. I also will refer to some of the research linking emotional intelligence with important work-related outcomes such as individual performance and organizational productivity.
Even though the term has been misused and abused by many popularizers, I believe it rests on a firm scientific foundation. Also, while there are aspects of the concept that are not new, some aspects are. Historical Roots of the Topic When psychologists began to write and think about intelligence, they focused on cognitive aspects, such as memory and problem-solving.
However, there were researchers who recognized early on that the non-cognitive aspects were also important. For instance, David Wechsler defined intelligence as "the aggregate or global capacity of the individual to act purposefully, to think rationally, and to deal effectively with his environment".
As early as he referred to "non-intellective" as well as "intellective" elements, by which he meant affective, personal, and social factors. The main question is whether non-intellective, that is affective and conative abilities, are admissible as factors of general intelligence.
My contention has been that such factors are not only admissible but necessary. I have tried to show that in addition to intellective there are also definite non-intellective factors that determine intelligent behavior. If the foregoing observations are correct, it follows that we cannot expect to measure total intelligence until our tests also include some measures of the non-intellective factors [Wechsler,p.
Wechsler was not the only researcher who saw non-cognitive aspects of intelligence to be important for adaptation and success. Robert Thorndike, to take another example, was writing about "social intelligence" in the late thirties. Unfortunately, the work of these early pioneers was largely forgotten or overlooked until when Howard Gardner began to write about "multiple intelligence.
In the s, under the direction of Hemphill, the Ohio State Leadership Studies suggested that "consideration" is an important aspect of effective leadership.
More specifically, this research suggested that leaders who are able to establish "mutual trust, respect, and a certain warmth and rapport" with members of their group will be more effective.
At about the same time, the Office of Strategic Services developed a process of assessment based on the earlier work of Murray that included the evaluation of non-cognitive, as well as cognitive, abilities.
Many of the dimensions measured in assessment centers then and now involve social and emotional competencies such as communication, sensitivity, initiative, and interpersonal skills. I could cite other strands of research and theory, but I think it is clear that by the early s, there was a long tradition of research on the role of non-cognitive factors in helping people to succeed in both life and the workplace.
The current work on emotional intelligence builds on this foundation. Contemporary Interest in the Topic When Salovey and Mayer coined the term emotional intelligence inthey were aware of the previous work on non-cognitive aspects of intelligence.
Salovey and Mayer also initiated a research program intended to develop valid measures of emotional intelligence and to explore its significance. For instance, they found in one study that when a group of people saw an upsetting film, those who scored high on emotional clarity which is the ability to identify and give a name to a mood that is being experienced recovered more quickly.
Goleman was a science writer for the New York Times, whose beat was brain and behavior research. He had been trained as a psychologist at Harvard where he worked with David McClelland, among others.
McClelland was among a growing group of researchers who were becoming concerned with how little traditional tests of cognitive intelligence told us about what it takes to be successful in life. IQ by itself is not a very good predictor of job performance.
Hunter and Hunter estimated that at best IQ accounts for about 25 percent of the variance. Sternberg has pointed out that studies vary and that 10 percent may be a more realistic estimate.
In some studies, IQ accounts for as little as 4 percent of the variance. An example of this research on the limits of IQ as a predictor is the Sommerville study, a 40 year longitudinal investigation of boys who grew up in Sommerville, Massachusetts.
However, IQ had little relation to how well they did at work or in the rest of their lives. What made the biggest difference was childhood abilities such as being able to handle frustration, control emotions, and get along with other people.
Another good example is a study of 80 Ph. Forty years later, when they were in their early seventies, they were tracked down and estimates were made of their success based on resumes, evaluations by experts in their own fields, and sources like American Men and Women of Science.
It turned out that social and emotional abilities were four times more important than IQ in determining professional success and prestige. Now it would be absurd to suggest that cognitive ability is irrelevant for success in science.
One needs a relatively high level of such ability merely to get admitted to a graduate science program at a school like Berkeley.
Once you are admitted, however, what matters in terms of how you do compared to your peers has less to do with IQ differences and more to do with social and emotional factors. But then it is more important to be able to persist in the face of difficulty and to get along well with colleagues and subordinates than it is to have an extra 10 or 15 points of IQ.
The same is true in many other occupations. We also should keep in mind that cognitive and non-cognitive abilities are very much related.Names of Interred at Pt. Lookout Cemetery (Letters F to K) This is a list of names that were converted from the text listings in Edwin Beitzell's book.
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