Wambui Mwangi I will open the scene with an early morning: Highway Bar is open for business.
All the fishers of octopus Their meeting place is the rock, All the players of Bao Their meeting place is the board.
Rules Bao Table The Bao board consists of four rowseach one with eight holes. The holes are rounded except the fourth from the right in the central rows, which is square in shape and called nyumba "house".
A nyumba ceases temporarily to be a functional nyumba, when it has less than six seedsand ultimately, when its contents have been captured or moved in a lap.
In the rules given below, a nyumba is always meant to be a "functional nyumba". The ultimate holes at either end of the inner rows are called kichwa "head" and both, the ultimate and the penultimate holes are known as kimbi according to P.
Initial Position The position at the start of the game is shown in the diagram. In addition, each player has 22 seeds in reserve. The game is played in turns. There is an initial phase with special rules, called namu, in which seeds are introduced into play, and the main stage called mtaji, which starts after the move that put the last seed on the board.
Bao la Kiswahili is a game with multilap sowing. Each player only sows around his own two rows. Moves can be with or without capturing. Non-capturing moves are also known as takata.
A prerequisite for making a capture is to have at least two occupied holes facing each other in the players' front rows. Any such position results in a capture during the namu stage, but in the mtaji stage the last seed of the first lap must fell into an occupied hole in opposition to really effect a capture.
Only the contents of the opponent's front row can be captured while those in his back row are safe. In addition, the following general rules must be abided by all the times: If the first lap of a move doesn't capture, nothing will be captured in the full move.
On the other hand, if the first lap captures, multiple captures can follow, even if they will be interrupted by non-capturing laps. If 16 or more seeds are sown in the first lap, nothing will be captured. Note that this rule only applies to the second stage because a move always starts with a single seed in the first stage.
Namu Stage Non-capturing moves If it is not possible to make a capture, the player takes a seed from his reserve and puts it into a non-empty hole in his front row: If the player has a nyumba, he is not permitted to put the seed into it, unless it is the only occupied hole in his front row.
If the player has no nyumba, he can only add the seed to a hole, which contains at least two seeds, unless all non-empty holes in the front row are singletons. After that the player picks all the seeds from this hole and sows them into consecutive holes in either direction, clockwise or anticlockwise.
If, however, the seed is put into a nyumba, he takes just two seeds from it and sows them in either direction. If the last seed is sown into a non-empty hole, but not a nyumba, its contents are taken and the sowing continues until the last seed falls in an empty hole, which also ends the turn.
If, however, the lap ends in the nyumba, the move is not continued and the turn is over without delay. Capturing moves After the player has put a seed into a hole, which effects a capture, he takes the contents of the opponent's inner hole opposite to it and sows them towards the center of his inner row starting in a kichwa: If he has captured from a kimbi, he must start in the kichwa of the same side left or right.
If he has captured from the four central holes, he may choose the kichwa. He continues in laps as in takata unless the last seed is dropped into an occupied hole of his inner row and the opponent's hole opposite is not empty either, which results in another capture: The captured seeds must now be sown towards the center from the kichwa, which is in the direction from where he arrived so that the direction of sowing remains unaltered unless he captured from a kimbi of the other end of the row.
Then he starts from the kichwa of this side and the direction of sowing is reversed. If, however, the player ends a lap in his nyumba, he can either choose to stop sowing or he may continue called safariwhich would destroy the nyumba forever.
Mtaji Stage Non-capturing moves If the player has no reserve seeds left and cannot capture, he may choose any hole of his front row including the nyumbawhich contains more than one seed, and then sows its contents in either direction: If there are only singletons in the front row, he may take a hole in his back row, but no singletons.
The move keeps on going with multiple laps until the last seed is dropped into an empty hole. The front row may never be emptied, not even temporarily.Police and prison guards used excessive force against inmates and suspects, and police impunity was a problem.
Prison conditions were harsh and life threatening. Police corruption and violation of legal procedures were problems, and the judiciary was corrupt and inefficient.
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