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My father was on the board of a Gulf development bank, assisting—or so they were under the impression—efforts to alleviate poverty in various African countries.
The doors between the inside and outside of the Lusaka hotel where we stayed were as much symbolic as they were tangible; made of money, race and social class. But the inside and outside had something in common: Coca-Cola, whether dragged by vendors on small carts or poured with a flourish in swanky restaurants.
Back in South Africa, my home country, Coke was a household name since the s. Companies like Coke financed the makings of the regime, investing in its earlier legitimacy by sponsoring landmarks like the Voortrekker Monument, commemorating European pioneers.
Historically, the country was a key supplier of cheap labor, critical resources like gold and platinum, and a bastion in the rhetorical anti-communist foreign policy of countries like the US and UK.
For companies like Coke, South Africa was a market others were less willing to enter. The company refused to disclose, on several occasions, key information about hiring, pay scales and other critical issues, citing confidentiality.
At the time, Coke controlled more than 75 percent of the South African market and 10 cents of every cent bottle sold was claimed by the regime as tax. In fact, like SABMiller and other companies using a host of tax havens, trusts and neighboring countries to circumvent South Africa as provenance, Coke had reorganized business affairs from the late s to ensure that a management presence external to the country could still hold the market through selective divestment.
In other words, Coke wanted in—just not from the inside. The company circumvented the problem of selling its Durban-based concentrate plant—its syrup manufacturer—by developing another in neighbouring Swaziland.
Coke stepped into Swaziland, incorporating Coca-Cola Concoalmost in tandem with the entrance of a new King, Mswati.
A year later, the company had a concentrate plant up and running, exporting to its biggest regional buyer — South Africa. Mswati would gift Coke with the desired proximity, total legal and financial secrecy and a 6 percent corporate tax rate — essentially providing tax haven-like services to the company.
Which is, to say, more countries than the UN has members. Hidden Values But there is another Conco, this one disclosed by Coke and based in the Cayman Islands, a notoriously secretive tax haven. The US Securities and Exchange Commission SEC requires multinationals to identify — at the risk of a small penalty for non-disclosure — subsidiaries that are financial or tax related entities.
Often, when comparing company disclosures from one year to the next, subsidiaries that remain active, disappear. The re-incorporation shift to Delaware was a legal, though not physical move, from Atlanta where the company was incorporated in and where it continues be physically headquartered.
But the process is self-regulated by companies and transaction details are confidential even to national revenue agencies.
We just have to take their word for it. Traditional studies tend to focus on the undervaluation of minerals like diamonds or gold.
Yet, in the case of intangible-heavy companies Coca-Cola, there exists no market equivalent against which to compare assigned value. According to the International Accounting Standards Board IASB which sets global financial reporting standards, the only brands that can be listed are those that have been acquired.
The company statements paint an interesting picture: Coke is not alone. In the early s the balance between tangible and intangible was Today that is reversed—80 percent of the value of most stock markets is intangible. Intangible Goldmine Interbrand, a leading brand consultancy, usually ranks Coca-Cola in the top three brands, alongside Google, and Microsoft — companies that make their business from intangible capital.IFRS and IAS, provide detail behind the framework of the International Accounting Standards Board (IASB).
We clarify the issues and make the transitions easier. XBRL (eXtensible Business Reporting Language) is a freely available and global framework for exchanging business torosgazete.com allows the expression of semantic meaning commonly required in business torosgazete.com language is XML-based and uses the XML syntax and related XML technologies such as XML Schema, XLink, XPath, and torosgazete.com use of XBRL is to define and exchange .
Sep 28, · Function. The function of accounting standards is to help encourage and champion the use of sound financial systems in the local sector while promoting financial solidity globally.
The IASB is developing new - and clarifying existing - guidance in response to concerns about disclosure in financial statements. Adam Deller explains.
IASB Work Plan The timetable shows the current best estimate of document publication dates. The effective date of amendments and new standards is usually months after publication date, although in setting an effective date . Not only is the Institute meeting a felt need by students but it has also achieved recognition by employers, many of whom sponsor their employees as students; and by the colleges, where the Institute’s examinations have been incorporated into business studies training programmes as a first step towards a more advanced qualification.