United States[ edit ] The United States is seen to be using its power to expand its influence. Criticism is meted out for large-scale events wars ; for expressing support in favor of opposition groups, and for aiding the rebel groups' aspirations to remove governments.
During the last half of the nineteenth century, the Western imperialist powers of England, France, and Germany established the model for acquisition of colonies in Asia and for the partition of China into spheres of influence.
Near the end of the century, about the same time Japan began to capture colonial territory, the United States and Russia also initiated their imperialistic expansion in Asia. Section 1 of this essay reviews the key points of the four theories of imperialism. The final section provides conclusions.
Theories of Imperialism Imperialism can be defined as direct or indirect domination of an industrialized country over a colonial territory or another country.
These three theories and the theory of nationalism have been subjected to various criticisms, but proponents still exist for each one. Hobson identified the taproot of imperialism to be surplus capital in the home country in search of profitable investments in foreign markets.
The profits earned by the small number of rich capitalists in the home market resulted in chronic oversaving, since they had a lower marginal propensity to consume than poor workers with wages based upon the cost of living rather than the efficiency of their labor Although imperialism does not make sense as a business policy for a nation as a whole due to its enormous military and administrative expense, "strong organized industrial and financial interests" that stand to gain from imperialism find ways to put this expense on the general public 46, Hobson argued that if purchasing power were reapportioned from the rich to the poor, then the home market would provide full employment of capital and labor with no overproduction, and there would be no need for the imperialistic fight for foreign markets Lenin 14, 88 expressed the Marxist view of imperialism as the "monopoly stage of capitalism," the highest and final stage of capitalism prior to the proletarian social revolution.
Essential features of imperialism include the concentration of production and capital into monopolies large-scale firmsthe merging of bank and industrial capital, the export of capital, the apportionment of the world among the large-scale firms, and the division of territories of the world among the great capitalist powers Lenin also emphasized that the need for raw materials drove capitalists to acquire colonies Like Hobson, Lenin argues that surplus capital will be exported abroad for the purpose of increasing profits Joseph Schumpeter 6 considered imperialism to be "the objectless disposition on the part of the state to unlimited forcible expansion.
The bellicosity of an autocratic state derives from "the necessities of its social structure, from the inherited dispositions of its ruling class, rather than from the immediate advantages to be derived from the conquest" As a country becomes more capitalistic, the energy for war decreases as the "competitive system absorbs the full energies of most of the people at all economic levels" Schumpeter viewed imperialism as an atavism in the social structure of capitalist states, an element from prior history that affects emotional reactions Nationalism as a theory of imperialism goes under several other names, such as "power politics" Cohen; Mommsen74 and "mercantilism" Brown26; Gilpin The theory of nationalism emphasizes the essential role of the state in imperialistic behavior as a nation seeks to maximize its power, prestige, and wealth relative to other countries.
Nationalists consider economic relations between nations to be conflictual, a zero-sum game where the gain of one nation is the loss of another nation. This theory views capitalists as willing to invest wherever profits are expected to be greatest, either in the home country, overseas colonies, or other countries, so sometimes the interests of state leaders and business capitalists may coincide in plans for imperialist expansion.
However, according to nationalism, ultimately politics determines economic relations and organization. Nationalists stress national security and national sentiment in international political and economic dynamics Gilpin Japan Joins the Imperialist Club Japan forcefully acquired three major foreign territories between and Korea occupied a strategically important geographic position just to the west of the southern part of Japan.
Japan went to war with China over proposed administrative and financial reforms in Korea. Japan also received a large indemnity; acquired Taiwan and the Liaodong Peninsula in southern Manchuria; and obtained several other concessions from China.In fact, three major, interrelated factors contributed to Japan's aggression in the lead-up to World War II and during the conflict.
The three factors were fear of outside aggression, growing Japanese nationalism, and the need for natural resources. Jul 07, · For Japan, World War II grew from a conflict historians call the Second Sino-Japanese War. The Second Sino-Japanese War began in earnest in with a battle called the Marco Polo Bridge Incident.
Japan in the 19 th century. Japan proved itself very quickly in two military conflicts: 1) Sino-Japanese War () Japan defeated China in war for Korea.
2) Russo-Japanese War () Japan went to war with Russia over Russian eastward encroachment in Asia, particularly Manchuria and Korea. Read this article to learn about the expansionist policy, political repression, military fascism between the two world wars in Japan!
The drive for expansion had been a marked feature of Japanese history since the beginning of her modernisation in the second half of the nineteenth century.
The military-industrial machine went into high gear, pulling Japan out of its depression as it continued to expand Japanese hegemony across the Far East. As Holland, France, and Germany were enveloped in turmoil in Europe, Japan looked to replace them in Asia.
Japan felt looked down on by Western countries during the late 19th century. The phrase fukoku kyōhei (rich nation, strong army) was created during this time and shows how Japanese officials saw imperialism as the way to gain respect and power.