The Christians, mainly Maronite, have existed in the area, of what is known today as Lebanon since the fourth century, and moved in large numbers to Mount Lebanon Jabal Loubnan in the eighth and ninth centuries. The Maronites took their name from John Maron, a learned monk who was Patriach of Antioch in the 8th century. Marguerite Johnson traces the heritage of the Lebanese Christians directly to Jesus.
Methodology Introduction The Middle East construction market is powering on despite the economic gloom. Leaving aside the downturn of the real estate sector in Dubai, this survey reveals the overwhelming impetus behind infrastructure and large-scale residential projects across the Middle East.
Activity is down but far from out. The report emphasises the wealth accumulated within the region and the fervent desire to improve infrastructure and housing capacity.
The construction industry will be fuelled for many years to come. With oil prices moving upwards, many anticipate that confidence will improve dramatically in the coming year. Construction projects are predicted to move ahead unhindered by the lack of liquidity that is currently being blamed for delays and non-payments, and banks are also expected to start lending again.
Respondents see infrastructure projects as the main driver of the construction sector in the coming years, with governments committed to enhancing their transportation networks, and power and water facilities.
This is expected to sustain high levels of construction activity, even if real estate developments may be significantly down on levels. Positive effects have also come from the downturn. Materials and resources are now plentiful and of a higher quality. Many also predict an era of better regulation and transparency, which will in turn generate greater market confidence.
With the market less heated and with a greater emphasis on averting risk, this survey demonstrates that the construction industry is moving towards more sophisticated contractual relationships and is beginning to pay greater attention to the dispute resolution mechanisms and options which are available.
Most developers and contractors choose it through habit, but complain that it is too rigid and breeds an adversarial relationship.
The Middle East culture remains averse to formal dispute resolution procedures.
Few contractors are willing to risk damage to their reputation by launching claims against influential employers and developers and many are wary of what are regarded as untested or unpredictable dispute resolution mechanisms and institutions in the Middle East. Executive summary This survey was commissioned to gauge the current market opinion and business practices within the construction industry and establish the extent of the effects of the financial crisis across the Middle East.
We interviewed a wide range of key players within the Middle East construction sector. These telephone interviews occurred between 30 April and 28 May and all respondents were given the option of remaining anonymous.
The survey produced some thought-provoking responses and results. Primary markets 71 per cent of those interviewed pointed to Abu Dhabi, Qatar and Saudi Arabia as their primary markets, with Dubai only accounting for 5 per cent. Abu Dhabi, Qatar and Saudi Arabia were comparatively conservative during the recent construction boom and have suffered less from the economic downturn.
Their immense wealth derived from oil and gas resources is helping to push forward their construction plans. Abu Dhabi has its audacious development plan, involving major residential and infrastructure projects. Qatar has similar ambitions, while Saudi Arabia has pledged to provide housing to its rapidly growing middle-income population.
Saudi Arabia favours low-rise housing and this effectively increases the scale and complexity of the necessary infrastructure to support these sprawling developments.
George Laing, commercial director of Durrat Al Bahrain comments: It is recession proof. D Bahrain and Oman are also key markets, and Dubai is expected to resume real estate activity in the medium-term, although infrastructure projects are continuing in Kuwait is another key market, although it is felt by some respondents that the volatile political situation is not assisting the market to develop.
Taking a broad view of the Middle East, respondents collectively anticipate a plentiful supply of ongoing and planned developments, which will sustain the construction industry over the coming years. The financial crisis has only slowed down a market that had become over-heated.
Escaping the downturn When will the market recover? D Though clearly affected by the global financial crisis, the Middle East continues to be one of the most active construction environments in the world.
Indeed, many believe that the new era of caution is positive for the construction industry. Employers and developers are expected to focus more on planning and feasibility in the future, and less on hasty construction and fast profits.
Respondents indicate that investor speculation will no longer drive the market and as a result the construction industry will be more stable and sustainable.
Which factors will contribute most to a recovery? D A rise in oil and gas prices is clearly pivotal to the construction sector and its progress.
It leads to increased liquidity and bolsters confidence amongst lenders.Many scholars and political analysts agree that Westernization, chiefly, the modernization era that the European colonial powers instituted in the Middle East, albeit forcefully, has spurred profound and positive changes that would not have been possible had the region been left alone (Louis, ; Lockman, ).
In the Middle East, as elsewhere, many elements of the contemporary political and financial elite are cosmopolitan in their behavior, habits, and ideas. Yet this process has proceeded far less in that region than elsewhere, partly because of the factors mentioned above, and partly due to strong public pressure to maintain traditional or.
The Middle East burst back onto the American foreign policy radar with the Six Day War of , when Israel, after rising tension and threats from all sides, preempted what it characterized as an impending attack from Egypt, Syria, and Jordan. D. Though clearly affected by the global financial crisis, the Middle East continues to be one of the most active construction environments in the world.
The Geography of the Middle East. The Middle East is a large and diverse geographical area located in southwest Asia and northeast Africa.
It extends over 2, miles from the Black Sea in the north to the Arabian Sea in the south, and about 1, miles from the Mediterranean Sea in the west to the mountains of Iran. English society comprises the group behaviour of the English people, and of collective social interactions, organisation and political attitudes in torosgazete.com social history of England evidences many social and societal changes over the history of England, from Anglo-Saxon England to the contemporary forces upon the Western torosgazete.com .